AquaTT Training News - Newsletter 9 2016



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04 June 2020
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Training News is a free e-mail news service provided by AquaTT on education, training, news and events in marine science, aquaculture and related sectors. The newsletter currently reaches more than 5,000 international recipients on a monthly basis. Please submit any relevant information for inclusion in next month's edition to Please CLICK HERE to go to the archives of AquaTT Training News and Announcements.



Student Corner




To search for MSc programmes, MSc and PhD courses, and other training opportunities (short courses, online courses, work placements, etc.) in aquaculture, fisheries and aquatic resource management, please visit the Aqua-tnet Education Gate. This interactive web portal is the one-stop-shop for education in your field. For information on all educational opportunities (courses, workshops, etc.), as well as general events (conferences, meetings, etc.) please refer to the AquaTT Announcement newsletter which is sent out with Training News. A comprehensive overview of all events is given in the AquaTT Calendar.



New Online Course Offers Educators Innovative Ways to Teach Ocean Literacy

A free online course entitled “From ABC to ABSeas: Ocean Literacy for all”, led by Sea Change partner UNESCO and its Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO), will empower second-level teachers and marine educators to give students a greater understanding of the importance of the ocean. The course will be available on the European Multiple MOOC Aggregator (EMMA) from 7 November 2016 in the following languages: English, French, Spanish, Italian and Catalan. SEACHANGE Logo

Many European citizens are not aware of the ocean’s influence on us and our influence on the ocean. In other words, many of us lack a sense of “Ocean Literacy”. This clearly presents a barrier for citizens to engage in ocean-responsible behaviour or consider ocean-related careers.

Experienced educators, tutors, professors and researchers from the EU Horizon 2020-funded Sea Change project have developed this novel Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) with the aim to create a deeper understanding amongst European citizens of how their health depends on the health of our seas and ocean.

Course developer and instructor Dr Francesca Santoro from IOC-UNESCO said: “The ocean plays a fundamental role in the health of our planet and of human beings. We need to become aware of its importance to be able to act as responsible citizens. This Ocean Literacy MOOC will take you on a journey to understand the ocean and how we can behave responsibly to enjoy its full potential.”

The course will provide support and advice for teachers and educators to incorporate the Ocean Literacy into educational programmes, sharing activities and lesson plans developed by experts in the field of Marine Education.

SeaChangeMOOC flyerUpon successful completion of the course, participants will be able to take the Ocean Literacy principles and concepts into the classroom using a range of innovative educational approaches. They will be able to suggest engagement and exploratory learning to their students, as well as develop enquiry-based activities with an interdisciplinary context.

“This MOOC will allow you to be part of a dynamic group of teachers, marine scientists and educators from all around Europe, and beyond. You will have the chance to learn about Ocean Literacy and innovative teaching methods, and share your experiences and approaches with colleagues”, said Dr Santoro.

The ultimate goal of this educational resource is to equip teachers with the tools to encourage their students to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources. It will be available for four weeks, from 7 November - 5 December 2016. A certificate of participation will be issued to all those that complete at least 70% of the course activities.

For more information on the MOOC or to register see:

Download the course flyer:

For more information on the Sea Change project, see:


Innovative Public Engagement Activities to Increase Awareness of the Ocean across Europe

The EU-funded Sea Change project is holding a series of innovative public engagement activities across Europe in 2016 and 2017 to change the way European citizens view their relationship with the ocean. These outreach activities, which will be announced on the Sea Change calendar (, are being co-created with citizens based on public consultations.

SeaChange PublicEngagement Muzeiko 2The Sea Change project aims to raise European citizens’ awareness of the intrinsic links between ocean and human health and to empower us to take direct and sustainable action towards a healthy ocean. By improving knowledge of the ocean’s influence on us and our influence on the ocean, we develop a sense of “Ocean Literacy”.

The EU-funded Sea Change project aims to raise European citizens’ awareness of the intrinsic links between ocean and human health and to empower us to take direct and sustainable action towards a healthy ocean.

Early in 2016, citizens from across Europe produced videos on innovative concepts or events that would increase people’s awareness and appreciation for the ocean. The winning ideas, including an educational activity box about coastal safety, a board game about ocean acidification and a contest to develop ocean-friendly clothes, have inspired public engagement activities which will be organised in seven European countries over the next year.

Aquaria and science centres across Europe will hold events to bring people together to share experiences and broaden their minds about the ocean. In an inter-generational exchange, senior citizens will share their knowledge and experiences from living or working on the coast with young people. Other events will engage water users, for example water sports enthusiasts, who will act as ambassadors for the ocean by spreading their passion for protecting this important resource.

Dr Jan Seys, Head of Communication at the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) and lead on this Sea Change mobilisation element, said: “By ‘injecting’ Ocean Literacy into science centres which have vast experience in science outreach and education, we hope to expand the levels of Ocean Literacy amongst the public. Science centres and aquaria are very strong ambassadors when it comes to sharing scientific knowledge with the public."

SeaChange PublicEngagement Muzeiko 1The public engagement events kicked off with an ocean weekend at the children’s museum Muzeiko in Bulgaria from 7-9 October 2016. The festival featured activities designed to increase Ocean Literacy among children and their families, including: fun sports and activities related to water resources; movies dedicated to water sports and marine adventures; and meeting real ocean adventurers. Participants even had the opportunity to collect stamps from each activity and win an award as part of a Sea Change game.

All Sea Change outreach events seek to bring about real actions to increase Ocean Literacy using behavioural, systems and social change methodologies recommended by lead methodologists and social innovation experts Dr Christine Domegan and Dr Patricia McHugh from NUI Galway, Ireland. The activities will adhere to the five principles of behaviour change, which state that in order to influence behaviour, it is important to: get to know your target group(s)(Client Principle); help individuals pay attention to alternative choices (Competition Principle); look at the system you want to influence as a whole (Collective Principle); seek imaginative and innovative solutions (Creative Principle); and identify any discrepancies between what people value and how they behave (Change Principle).

Tomas Rehacek, project manager from Ecsite who is leading the task on public engagement through innovation said: “We hope that these creative formats of public engagement will educate people about the indispensable role of the ocean and make them think about the changes they can make in their lives to help the Ocean become healthier.”

Discover more about past, current and upcoming Sea Change events and initiatives at:, follow Sea Change on Twitter (@SeaChange_EU) or like us on Facebook (@SeaChangeProjectEU).


Seafood Safety: New Findings & Innovation Challenges – Discover the Conference Programme Online Now

ECsafeSEAFOOD LogoThe ‘Seafood Safety: New Findings & Innovation Challenges’ conference, which will be held 25-26 January 2017 in Brussels, Belgium, is a unique event dedicated to seafood safety in Europe. The event marks the end of the European Union-funded ECsafeSEAFOOD research project which assessed food safety issues related to non-regulated contaminants present in seafood as a result of environmental contamination. Its outcomes will play an important role in ensuring consumer confidence and addressing public concern in relation to the availability of safe and high-quality seafood.

The preliminary programme is now available to download from the conference website: Event topics include the latest research on marine toxins in seafood and the environment, state-of-the-art rapid detection tools for environmental contaminants and the future of seafood safety.

ECsafeSEAFOOD’s results are of particular interest to national and international policy makers in the fields of food safety, environment and public health, as well as food safety authorities, the seafood industry and consumer organisations. The event therefore includes a dedicated half-day International Stakeholder Event addressing these stakeholder groups. Following the International Stakeholder Event, a one-and-a-half-day Open Science Conference will focus on presenting the latest scientific knowledge on ECsafeSEAFOOD topics to a broad audience.

Conference participants will have the opportunity to exchange the latest knowledge on seafood safety, identify the key issues associated with seafood safety in Europe and discuss strategies to mitigate these risks, present the latest developments in toxin detection tools and network with food safety experts and other stakeholders from the field.

The preliminary programme can be downloaded now.

The registration deadline is 15 January 2017
For more information about this event or to register, please visit, or contact

For more information about the ECsafeSEAFOOD project, visit

For all the latest updates as the event approaches, follow ECsafeSEAFOOD on Twitter (@ECsafeSEAFOOD).


TRAFOON Open to Innovation Conference: Networks for the Support of the Traditional Food Sector in Europe

LOGO TRAFOON 14102013The closing conference for the TRAFOON project was held on 19 and 20 October 2016 at the Thon Hotel in Brussels City Centre. TRAFOON recognises that Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the EU traditional food sector are increasingly under pressure due to developing open markets, increasing demand for standardised and price competitive food products by consumers, and the challenges of obeying governmental regulations. 

The TRAFOON project was started in November 2013 with the objective of establishing a knowledge transfer network with a focus on food products made of grains, fish, fruits, vegetables and mushrooms. The TRAFOON network has worked to interlink researchers, knowledge transfer agents, and SME associations in 14 European countries to foster sustainable innovation and entrepreneurship in the sector of traditional foods for the benefit of the regions of Europe and the European consumer.

This two-day closing conference was held jointly with Trafoon’s sister project TRADEIT ( and shared a vision for the future development of the SME food sector in Europe. This vision has emerged from three years of regional engagement with SMEs, SME associations and researchers across Europe.

The conference presented outcomes, best practices and recommendations from the TRADEIT and TRAFOON projects with a special focus on:

  • Vision for the development of SME food sector in Europe
  • SME Case Studies: Successes and impacts of the TRADEIT & TRAFOON projects
  • Integrating entrepreneurial thinking into Food Research Centres

The TRADEIT and TRAFOON networks are composed of key actors in the food sector including, food producers, regional SME networks, food industry associations, enterprise development experts and leading research and innovation centres from across Europe. For more information on the TRAFOON project and its fish sub network, please visit


Fourth AQUAEXCEL2020 Call for Access Now Open: Fully EC-Funded Access to Top-Class Aquaculture Research Infrastructures Across Europe

AQUAEXCEL2020 COLThe fourth AQUAEXCEL2020 (AQUAculture infrastructures for EXCELlence in European fish research towards 2020) Call for Access is now open, with a deadline of 30 December 2016.

On a regular basis, the AQUAEXCEL2020 project invites proposals from European research groups for scientific research that utilises the facilities of any of the participating aquaculture research infrastructures. The AQUAEXCEL2020 project unites major aquaculture experimental facilities who have the capacity to undertake experimental trials on a selection of commercially important aquaculture fish species and system types. These installations are made available to the research community for Transnational Access (TNA) with the support of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme.

Transnational Access involves a research group in one country collaborating with one or more AQUAEXCEL2020 Infrastructures that are located in a different country to the applicant, and which offer facilities and expertise not available in their own country.

The available facilities cover the entire range of aquaculture production systems (cage, pond, recirculation, flowthrough, hatchery and disease challenge); environments (freshwater, marine and cold, temperate and warm water); production scales (small, medium and large industrial); fish species (salmonids, cold and warm water marine fish, freshwater fish and artemia); and fields of expertise (nutrition, physiology, health and welfare, genetics, engineering and monitoring and management technologies).

Interested researchers can propose projects that involve visits of one or two people to the chosen research infrastructure for a period of up to three months. Access to the research infrastructures and associated travel and subsistence expenses will be covered by AQUAEXCEL2020. The establishment of new transnational collaborations is strongly encouraged, as well as the participation of SMEs.

For more information on Transnational Access and how to apply please visit:


Discover and Discuss Innovative Blue Science Concepts to Advance Blue Growth with EuroMarine

Euromarine event flyer A EuroMarine event, entitled “Blue Science for Blue Growth: EuroMarine, connecting ideas and people” and hosted by MEP Ricardo Serrão Santos of the SEARICA Intergroup, will take place at the European Parliament in Brussels, Belgium, on 8 February 2017. This three-hour event will provide a platform to discuss the need for scientific research and integrative approaches to successfully tackle the marine related challenges society is facing.

This event takes place in conjunction with the EuroMarine General Assembly meeting, from 7-8 February 2017. EuroMarine is a consortium of research and academic organisations advancing marine science. Since 2014 EuroMarine has, with its limited budget, supported over 50 scientific activities to bring together more than 700 stakeholders to collectively address these challenges by understanding and building scenarios for marine systems under change, and developing marine science as a provider of new concepts and as a driver for innovation and technology. The work of EuroMarine will be placed in a wider context, connecting ideas with people to share, collaborate and push boundaries. Two panel discussions with diverse participants will bring together these concepts and highlight their importance to Blue Growth.

Dr Patrizio Mariani, EuroMarine Steering Committee Chair and Senior Researcher at the Technical University of Denmark, has acknowledged the endeavours needed to achieve this goal:

“In an era of rapid transformations affecting our oceans, societies and life we are asked to provide the scientific knowledge necessary to face future challenges and to guarantee a sustainable future to the next generations”.

euromarine logoThe event is open to all those interested but advance registration is required. Please register online.

Find out more about the EuroMarine network by visiting See the latest event updates at, or follow EuroMarine on Twitter (@Euromarine_tw). For further queries, please contact:


European Researchers Tackle Parasitic Diseases in Europe’s Farmed Fish

ParaFishControl Logo Colour

Parasitic diseases which affect fish species can significantly hamper aquaculture production and economic performance.

ParaFishControl is a European Union funded research project addressing the challenges of disease prevention and management to protect the sustainability and competitiveness of the European aquaculture industry. In September, over 70 researchers involved in ParaFishControl, from 13 European countries as well as Canada, came together in Copenhagen, Denmark, to discuss their latest research findings and to map out their future research strategies. Their task - to improve understanding of fish-parasite interactions and to develop respective management tools. For example: diagnostic tests, vaccines, risk maps, and best practice handbooks and management manuals for the prevention, control and mitigation of the most harmful parasitic species affecting key European farmed fish species.

ParaFishControl Project Coordinator Dr Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, from Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Spain explained: “This has been an exciting time for ParaFishControl! The project is only in its initial stages, but we have already made significant progress and published 11 scientific papers. The ParaFishControl published research includes: the effects of nematode worms on fish and consumer health, the role of fungal communities as suppressors of other fungi, and the decrease in intensity of infection of a gill parasite of gilthead sea bream after feeding infected fish with a mixture of compounds. We have also described, for the first time in Europe, a two-host life cycle of a parasitic myxozoan species and we have comprehensively reviewed the “macrophages first” hypothesis for polarized immune responses”.

“Another partner, the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), has been working on turbot scuticociliatosis, a disease caused by protozoans, which has been recognized as an emerging problem, inflicting significant economic loss in the global aquaculture industry, by affecting different fish species. Researchers at USC have discovered that the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and artemisinin as well as the chemical substance curcumin which is produced by some plants inhibit some enzymes of this parasite. These findings highlight potential for treating this disease in aquaculture” Dr Sitjà-Bobadilla added.

ParaFishControl consortium members

For a list of all publications, please visit:

ParaFishControl, funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 funding programme, has been going on since April 2015 and will continue until 2020. In that time, ParaFishControl will carry out a variety of activities to ensure the research findings are shared with a variety of stakeholders such as scientists working in academia or industry, fish farmers/growers, fish health professionals, agricultural advisors, breeders, consumers and policy makers as well as the general public.

For more information, please visit or follow us on Twitter: @parafishcontrol


COMMON SENSE: Demonstration of Next Generation Sensors for Advanced Real-Time Ocean Observation

COMMON SENSE Logo RGBThe final event of the COMMON SENSE project takes place in Barcelona on 27 January 2017.

COMMON SENSE is creating prototypes of next generation in-situ marine sensors to deliver vital information about the ocean. The project, launched in November 2013, is funded by the EC Seventh Framework Programme and was designed to directly respond to the requirement for integrated and effective data acquisition systems by developing innovative sensors that will contribute to our understanding of how the marine environment functions. In doing so, COMMON SENSE results can support the implementation of European Union marine policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).

As the COMMON SENSE project comes to a successful conclusion, the results will be presented at this final workshop, along with a demonstration of the novel sensors developed and tested during the COMMON SENSE project.
The COMMON SENSE sensors need less human operation and intervention than current technologies and create standardised data on eutrophication, underwater noise, heavy metals, and marine litter, with a focus on microplastics. Other important parameters considered are temperature, pressure, pH and pCO2. This information is essential for EU Member States to achieve and maintain a Good Environmental Status (GES) within MSFD, thus ensuring the long-term health of EU marine waters.

Professionals working in the marine environment and citizens curious about the status of our oceans are invited! You can register here for the event and see the draft agenda.


Student Corner


Established and Emerging Model Organisms for Marine Science, Schmid Training Course, 7-18 March 2017, Roscoff (France)

The Schmid Training Course on Established and Emerging Model Organisms for Marine Science will take place from 7-18 March 2017, at the Roscoff Marine Station in France. The objective of this training is to involve students in a technical and conceptual training on both academic and applied research on marine organisms. The wildlife resources of the Roscoff Biological Station will be available for observation and experimentation by the students. Students are expected to acquire the basic knowledge related to conventional and emerging marine models together with the tools for molecular and cellular analyses but will also gain an understanding of how it is challenging to work with marine models. See more:


International Summer School on Natural Products (ISSNP) 4-7 July 2017, Naples (Italy)

The 2nd edition of the International School on Natural Products will be held in July 2017 at the Stazione Zoologica "Anton Dohrn" 3 July and at the University of Naples "Federico II", Biotechnology building, from the 4 to 7 July 2017 ( The main focus theme of the ISSNP is on both established and emerging areas of research at the cutting-edge of organic chemistry inspired to natural products in their all aspects. Key topics addressed include medicinal chemistry optimization, target oriented discovery, biosynthesis and biotechnological aspects, chemical ecology, nutraceutical, new analytical methods. All students are expected to submit an abstract and may apply for a short oral communication and/or a poster presentation. See more:


Brilliant Marine Research Ideas Grant

The grants will be awarded for the first time to researchers affiliated to a Flemish University or Flemish University College with, at the time of application, less than 6 years of research experience at pre-doc level (i.e. since starting PhD research). The overall budget available for the grants is EUR 10000. However, each grant will have a maximum fund of EUR 5000.
The Flanders Marine Insitute (VLIZ) philanthropy seeks to fund a marine research idea that can contribute to solving a hypothesis-based marine research question. Topics of interest are (amongst others) the themes identified in the philanthropy research agenda including pollution, ocean and human health, marine biodiversity, climate change, ocean related disasters and marine explorations. More information:


Other News


Soils2Sea: Reducing Nutrient Loadings into the Baltic Sea – Film Premiere
The documentary film "Soils2Sea: Reducing nutrient loadings into the Baltic Sea" was developed and produced by Dr. Grit Martinez (Ecologic Institute) and Anne Berrini (Berrini films) with support from Dr. Przemyslaw Wachniew (AGH University of Science and Technology Krakow). The movie illustrates the societal story of implementing the EU's nitrate directive in the EU member states, particularly in Poland.
Read more on the Ecologic Institute website.


Ancient Fish Illuminates One of the Mysteries of Childhood
When losing your milk teeth, only the enamel-covered crown remains. In a paper published in Nature, a team of researchers from Uppsala University and the ESRF in France apply synchrotron x-ray tomography to a tiny jawbone of a 424 million year old fossil fish in order to illuminate the origin of this strange system of tooth replacement.
Read more on the Uppsala University website.


Marine Energy Innovation Flows More Smoothly and Quickly
The EU-funded MaRINET project has given researchers and developers free access to wave, tidal and offshore-wind energy test infrastructures and has harmonised test practices. This should speed up the commercialisation of marine energy devices.
Read more at the EC Research and Innovation information centre.


EU-US Agreement Offers New Opportunities for Research Cooperation
European and American researchers will be able to work together more closely on projects funded under Horizon 2020, the European Union's research and innovation programme. The Implementing Arrangement facilitates cooperation between US organisations and Horizon 2020 participants in cases where the US organisations are funded by the US and do not receive any funding from the Horizon 2020 programme.
Read the EC Research and Innovation news alert.


New Report on Ocean Warming Highlights the Role of MPAs in Combatting Climate Change
Climate change is already causing significant impacts to the world ocean according to a new report by IUCN. Along with emission reductions, larger MPAs and MPA networks are needed to increase the likelihood of conserving species following climate change-induced range shifts, by ensuring the protection of future wildlife habitats. MPAs can help reduce the total number of stressors on ecosystems.
Read the full International Union for the Conservation of Nature report here.


Species Speed Up Adaptation to Beat Effects of Warmer Oceans
Some fish species are adapting to survive environmental changes without significant genetic evolution, according to research from the University of East Anglia and Dalhousie University, Canada. Such changes mean species threatened by climate change may find ways to adapt far quicker than through changes in DNA, which come with evolution.
Read more on the University of East Anglia website.


In the Right Place at the Right Time
Based on a unique dataset collected during a research cruise to the Irminger Sea in April 2015, a new paper reveals a strong link between atmospheric forcing, deep convection, ocean ventilation and anthropogenic carbon sequestration. The Irminger Sea, a small ocean basin between Greenland and Iceland, is known for its harsh and extreme weather conditions during winter.
Read more at the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research.


New App Helps Scientists Map Riverine Litter Entering European Seas
A JRC-run project and a dedicated application are bringing together scientists from across the EU and its neighbourhood to monitor and map litter floating from rivers in the seas. The observation activity supports the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Although the work has already started, stakeholders are encouraged to join the network and monitor their own areas of concern.
Read the full story on the JRC news hub.


Dispersal, the Key for Understanding Marine Biodiversity
Dispersal plays a key role to connect populations, and contrastingly, its moderate limitation is one of the main processes to maintain species coexistence and promote regional biodiversity. A study recently published in Scientific Reports has explored whether neutral theory predictions with respect to marine biological connectivity are correct or not.
Read the full story on the AZTI tecnalia website


European Commission Proposes 2017 Fishing Quotas
The European Commission has presented its proposal for 2017 fishing quotas for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks, applicable in Union waters and for Union fishing vessels, in certain non-Union waters, in preparation for the December Fisheries Council, where Member States will negotiate Total Allowable Catches (TAC) in the Atlantic and North Sea.
Read the proposal on the Eur-Lex website


A Winning Expression of Gene Expression
Acclaimed talk at ICES Annual Science Conference 2016 tells the story of the genetic and phenotypic impact of size-selective harvesting on a fish stock and how underlying molecular workings drive the phenomenon of fisheries-induced evolution. A team at Finland's University of Turku looked at the processes underlying fisheries-induced evolution through sequencing the transcriptome of wild zebrafish.
Read the story on the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea website.


Commissioner Vella Welcomes Strategic Roadmap for Ocean Energy in the EU
The Ocean Energy Forum handed over to Commissioner Vella the results of 18 months of work on the future of ocean energy in Europe: its strategic roadmap "Building Ocean Energy for Europe". The report sets out a viable strategy which would see 10% of Europe's electricity delivered by wave and tidal energy by the year 2050.
Read the full story on the EC Maritime Affairs website.


Deep-sea Fishing Opportunities for 2017-2018: Unanimous Agreement on Deep Sea Quotas for the Next Two Years
The EU fisheries ministers have agreed on the 2017 and 2018 fishing limits (or TACs) for 19 deep-sea stocks. For the first time in six years, a unanimous agreement was reached on deep sea TACs and quotas for the next two years. One of these will be fished in accordance with Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) for the very first time next year.
Read the full story on the EC Fisheries website.


Fish to Fork: a Need to Implement Changes in the Food System
Ensuring nutritious food for all in a fair and environmentally sound way has become a societal, economic and policy challenge across the world. A shared understanding of the food system and the roles different actors — policy makers, producers and other stakeholders in the food supply-chain — play will be crucial to a sustainable future, according to a new European Environment Agency report.
Read the full story on the European Environment Agency website.


NEAFC Agrees EU Proposals for More Sustainable North-East Atlantic Fisheries
Important conservation and management measures for 2017 were adopted, most of them at the initiative of the EU, at the 35th Annual Meeting of the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC). The meeting, held in London on 14-18 November 2016, took a series of decisions to protect deep-sea species. It also paved the way for a stronger fight against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing.
Read the full story on the EC Fisheries website.


Personality Tests for Fish Could Help Boost Reproduction Rates
Aquaculture experts from the University of Stirling and the Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology (IRTA) in Catalonia, have found the way fish, Senegalese sole, cope with stress is determined by their personality and remains consistent regardless of the situation they are in. Experts hope the first study to test stress copying styles in mature Senegalese sole, will help farmers screen fish from a young age to help the species reproduce in captivity and improve aquaculture production.
Read more on the University of Stirling website


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